The Biomass Distribution On Earth Pnas

The biomass distribution on Earth | PNAS.

May 21, 2018 . All of the above efforts are each focused on a single taxon. We are aware of only two attempts at a comprehensive accounting of all biomass components on Earth: Whittaker and Likens made a remarkable effort in the early 1970s, noting even then that their study was "intended for early obsolescence."It did not include, for example, bacterial or fungal biomass..

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Biomass (ecology) - Wikipedia.

The biomass is the mass of living biological organisms in a given area or ecosystem at a given time. Biomass can refer to species biomass, which is the mass of one or more species, or to community biomass, which is the mass of all species in the community.It can include microorganisms, plants or animals. The mass can be expressed as the average mass per unit ....

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Climatic and biotic factors influencing regional declines ... - pnas.org.

Jun 22, 2022 . Here, using satellite-based L-band microwave vegetation optical depth, we mapped changes of above-ground biomass (AGB) during the drought and in subsequent years up to 2019. Over more than 60% of drought-affected intact forests, AGB reduced during the drought, except in the wettest part of the central Amazon, where it declined 1 y later..

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Biosphere - Wikipedia.

The term "biosphere" was coined by geologist Eduard Suess in 1875, which he defined as the place on Earth's surface where life dwells.. While the concept has a geological origin, it is an indication of the effect of both Charles Darwin and Matthew F. Maury on the Earth sciences.The biosphere's ecological context comes from the 1920s (see Vladimir I. Vernadsky), preceding ....

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Chemosynthesis - Wikipedia.

In biochemistry, chemosynthesis is the biological conversion of one or more carbon-containing molecules (usually carbon dioxide or methane) and nutrients into organic matter using the oxidation of inorganic compounds (e.g., hydrogen gas, hydrogen sulfide) or ferrous ions as a source of energy, rather than sunlight, as in photosynthesis. Chemoautotrophs, organisms that ....

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The global potential for increased storage of carbon on land | PNAS.

Estimates of unrealized potential carbon storage in total biomass (ABG + BGB) by 2050 due to climate change (RCP8.5; mean and range of 11 Earth system models) are also included. Maps depict the geographic distribution of (B) seven NCS opportunity categories and (C) unrealized potential carbon (MgC ha -1) storage (assumes baseline climate ....

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Global variation in diversification rate and species richness ... - PNAS.

The most biodiverse places on Earth are warm and wet (5-7).This is reflected in the latitudinal diversity gradient, the observation that species richness peaks near the equator and decreases toward the poles in many taxa (2, 8).Among dozens of hypotheses put forward to explain correlations of species richness with climate and latitude (7, 9), the Metabolic Theory of ....

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Aurelia aurita - Wikipedia.

Aurelia aurita lives in ocean water temperatures ranging from 6-31 ?C (43-88 ?F); with optimum temperatures of 9-19 ?C (48-66 ?F). It prefers temperate seas with consistent currents. It has been found in waters with salinity as low as 6 parts per thousand. The relation between summer hypoxia and moon jellyfish distribution is prominent during the summer months of July and ....

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Younger Dryas - Wikipedia.

The presence of a distinct cold period at the end of the LGM interval has been known for a long time. Paleobotanical and lithostratigraphic studies of Swedish and Danish bog and lake sites, as in the Allerod clay pit in Denmark, first recognized and described the Younger Dryas.. The Younger Dryas is the youngest and longest of three stadials, which resulted from typically ....

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Ocean - Wikipedia.

The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water that covers approximately 70.8% of the surface of Earth and contains 97% of Earth's water. An ocean can also refer to any of the large bodies of water into which the world ocean is conventionally divided. Separate names are used to identify five different areas of the ocean: Pacific (the largest), Atlantic, Indian, ....

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2007–2008 world food price crisis - Wikipedia.

Costs for fertilizer raw materials other than oil, such as potash, have been increasing as increased production of staples increases demand. This is causing a boom (with associated volatility) in agriculture stocks. [citation needed]The major IFPRI Report launched in February 2011 stated that the causes of the 2008 global food crisis were similar to that of the 1972-1974 food crisis, in ....

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Biomass - Wikipedia.

Biomass is plant-based material used as fuel to produce heat or electricity.Examples are wood and wood residues, energy crops, agricultural residues, and waste from industry, farms and households. Since biomass can be used as a fuel directly (e.g. wood logs), some people use the words biomass and biofuel interchangeably. Others subsume one term under the other..

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Soil - Wikipedia.

Soil, also commonly referred to as earth or dirt, is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life. (Some scientific definitions distinguish dirt from soil by restricting the former term specifically to displaced soil.) The term pedolith, used commonly to refer to the soil, translates to ground stone in the sense fundamental stone, from the ....

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Primary production - Wikipedia.

Primary production is the production of chemical energy in organic compounds by living organisms.The main source of this energy is sunlight but a minute fraction of primary production is driven by lithotrophic organisms using the chemical energy of inorganic molecules.. Regardless of its source, this energy is used to synthesize complex organic molecules from simpler ....

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Environmental degradation - Wikipedia.

One major component of environmental degradation is the depletion of the resource of fresh water on Earth. Approximately only 2.5% of all of the water on Earth is fresh water, with the rest being salt water. 69% of fresh water is frozen in ice caps located on Antarctica and Greenland, so only 30% of the 2.5% of fresh water is available for consumption..

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Plankton - Wikipedia.

Plankton are primarily divided into broad functional (or trophic level) groups: . Phytoplankton (from Greek phyton, or plant), are autotrophic prokaryotic or eukaryotic algae that live near the water surface where there is sufficient light to support photosynthesis.Among the more important groups are the diatoms, cyanobacteria, dinoflagellates and coccolithophores..

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Carbon capture and storage - Wikipedia.

Carbon capture and storage (CCS) or carbon capture and sequestration is the process of capturing carbon dioxide (CO 2) before it enters the atmosphere, transporting it, and storing it (carbon sequestration) for centuries or millennia.Usually the CO 2 is captured from large point sources, such as a chemical plant or biomass power plant, and then stored in an underground ....

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ESSD - Global Carbon Budget 2019 - Copernicus.org.

Dec 04, 2019 . The concentration of carbon dioxide (CO 2) in the atmosphere has increased from approximately 277 parts per million (ppm) in 1750 (Joos and Spahni, 2008), the beginning of the Industrial Era, to 407.38+-0.1 ppm in 2018 (Dlugokencky and Tans, 2019; Fig. 1 from this paper).The atmospheric CO 2 increase above pre-industrial levels was, initially, primarily ....

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Blue carbon - Wikipedia.

Blue carbon is carbon sequestration (the removal of carbon dioxide from the earth's atmosphere) by the world's oceanic and coastal ecosystems, mostly by algae, seagrasses, macroalgae, mangroves, salt marshes and other plants in coastal wetlands.This occurs through plant growth and the accumulation and burial of organic matter in the soil. Because oceans cover 70% of ....

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Evidence of common descent - Wikipedia.

Evidence of common descent of living organisms has been discovered by scientists researching in a variety of disciplines over many decades, demonstrating that all life on Earth comes from a single ancestor.This forms an important part of the evidence on which evolutionary theory rests, demonstrates that evolution does occur, and illustrates the processes that created Earth's ....

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Terrestrial planet - Wikipedia.

A terrestrial planet, telluric planet, or rocky planet, is a planet that is composed primarily of silicate rocks or metals.Within the Solar System, the terrestrial planets accepted by the IAU are the inner planets closest to the Sun, i.e. Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars.Among astronomers who use the geophysical definition of a planet, two or three planetary-mass satellites - Earth's ....

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Plant - Wikipedia.

[citation needed] Plants form about 80% of the world biomass at about 450 gigatonnes (4.4 x 10 11 long tons; 5.0 x 10 11 short tons) of carbon. [90] Land plants are key components of the water cycle and several other biogeochemical cycles ..

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Climate-smart soils | Nature.

Apr 06, 2016 . In general, soil C sequestration rates on land maintained in agricultural use are lower than for land restoration to grassland or forest, ....

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Solar energy - Wikipedia.

The total solar energy absorbed by Earth's atmosphere, oceans and land masses is approximately 122 PW.year = 3,850,000 exajoules (EJ) per year. In 2002 (2019), this was more energy in one hour (one hour and 25 minutes) than the world used in one year. Photosynthesis captures approximately 3,000 EJ per year in biomass..

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Metal contamination and bioremediation of agricultural soils ... - Nature.

Jun 23, 2020 . Nature Reviews Earth & Environment - Contamination of agricultural soils by heavy metals and metalloids has severe consequences on human and ecosystem health. This Review discusses the sources ....

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Trophic level - Wikipedia.

The efficiency with which energy or biomass is transferred from one trophic level to the next is called the ecological efficiency. Consumers at each level convert on average only about 10% of the chemical energy in their food to their own organic tissue (the ten-percent law). For this reason, food chains rarely extend for more than 5 or 6 levels..

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Biomass burning and marine aerosol processing over the ….

Jul 21, 2022 . With Africa producing almost a third of the Earth's biomass burning aerosol (BBA) (Roberts et al., 2009), two aircraft campaigns, ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS (ORACLES) and CLoud-Aerosol-Radiation Interaction and Forcing: Year 2017 (CLARIFY-2017), were focused on understanding African biomass burning aerosol interaction ....

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Hydrothermal vent - Wikipedia.

Hydrothermal vents exist because the earth is both geologically active and has large amounts of water on its surface and within its crust. ... Hydrothermal vent ecosystems have enormous biomass and productivity, but this rests on the symbiotic relationships that have evolved at vents. ... 10.1073/pnas.0503674102. PMC ....

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Increasing contribution of microbial residues to soil organic ….

Jul 01, 2022 . 1. Introduction. Grasslands are one of the most important ecosystems and widely distributed around the world. The role of grassland in carbon (C) stock is often overlooked but it contains about 30% of the world's soil C stock (Trumbore, 1997; Lal, 2018; Peters et al., 2019).Thus, protecting and increasing grassland soil C stock is a global challenge, with ....

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